The Leviathan Index ®





Title:  “The Leviathan Index: How Much Force Is Required to Maintain Civility in Large Social Systems?”



Objectives: The objectives are (1) to identify/define the criteria (index components) for ranking multinational corporations (MNCs) and nation states in terms of the degree of constraint or force deployed to maintain the culture or civility of their institutions, (2) to develop a ranking formula for comparing both MNCs and nation states relative to levels of constraint used to maintain their cultures or society,  (3) index (rank) a broad cross section of MNCs and nation states, (4) compare these rankings of “constraint or force employed” to positive indicators of ethical/legal compliance by corporations, and “civility or live-ability” for nation states, and (5) develop conclusions on the relative effectiveness, or lack thereof (i.e. positive/negative correlations), of constraint-based approaches to achieving ethical, legal, and corporate social responsibility outcomes in these large social systems.



Approach (research design):  These detailed objectives drive the research design I intend to employ.  This will be in part a literature search for the most recent data on MNCs and nation states for such factors as (per nation states): military expenditures; criminal justice expenditures; lengths of incarceration (criminal sentencing data); prevalence of use of the death penalty;  expenditures on public and private, civil and criminal litigation, etc., and (per MNCs): expenditures on civil and criminal litigation; expenditures on private police and security; expenditures for criminal and civil penalties; expenditures for compliance-based legal/ethical training programs, etc.  And a fundamental part of the research task is conforming disparate data/information into comparable units (apples to apples) and establishing an integrated ranking system for these two types of social organizations. 



Relationship to other research or past work.  For six years I ran a public policy research firm and/or a university policy research program (Strategies West and The Mind of Colorado).  The Mind of Colorado preformed surveys to index the levels of trust and confidence citizens of Colorado had in a variety of public institutions and professions.  The work was designed on the model established in the 1950s by the George Gallop organization and was performed by myself and colleagues at the Graduate School of Public Administration, University of Colorado at Denver.  Part of my interest in this sabbatical proposal is survey research done in the past three years (see below) indicating that “compliance-based” programs used by corporations to achieve ethical and legal behavior by their employees tend to have far less success than “integrity based” programs.  Following that scent, I want to look at the use of force (compliance) and the commensurate results achieved in both nation states and MNCs.  I teach both International Law and Corporate Social Responsibility courses.



Intended Use of Results.  I intend to publish my findings either as a book (I have already copyrighted “The Leviathan Index” ©) or as a series of articles in both business and public policy periodicals.  I have been and will continue to use this research in my Business Law and Corporate Social Responsibility courses at Daniels.  Finally, I have been and will continue to use this research in my public speaking, community service, and professional education activities.



External dollar support or other resources such as, laboratory space, use of other institutional resources, etc.  I will be required to pay 1,400 Pounds Sterling to Green College for use of the facilities of Green/Templeton College as well as the full facilities of Oxford University.  NB: Green College (the human sciences graduate college of Oxford University) and Templeton College (the graduate business college) are in the process of merger.  In AY 2008-2009 the merger will be complete, and my visiting scholar position would be with the newly merged institution.  Daniels is in the process of establishing a cooperative relationship with Templeton, and the first students from Daniels would likely be there during the year of my sabbatical.



Summary of potential contribution or benefit.  I hope the value of such research for my own teaching, Department of Business Ethics and Legal Studies, and Daniels is obvious in the description above.  Dr. Lynn Paine of Harvard University established some years ago the categories of “Compliance-Based” and “Integrity-Based” approaches to achieving corporate social responsibility.  Dr. Paine’s analysis argues for a “balanced approach” in the use of the two techniques.  Data now suggests (The National Business Ethics Survey 2005) that education oriented, i.e. “integrity-based” approaches, are far superior in achieving ethical corporate systems, than lawyer/rule oriented “training programs.”  It is the purpose of this study to extend that line of analysis.  It could have significant impact both on graduate business education and on corporate training/educational programs related to law, ethics, and public policy.